The inclusive educator

The inclusive educator

This module outlines the characteristics and behaviour of teachers and educators considered to be inclusive, encouraging of students with diverse backgrounds reaching their personal best.

This module offers you:


Aim & Learning Outcomes


Key concepts, background information, relevant theories


Exercises, self-reflection & practical resources to promote inclusive e-learning


Advice, ideas and proposals on relevant issues


References and further reading  


A module outlining the characteristics and behaviour of teachers/educators considered to be inclusive, encouraging of students with diverse backgrounds reaching their personal best

Learning objectives

After the completion of this module, learners (VET teachers/trainers/educators and also VET providers/Staff, as well as other key actors of educational sector) will be able to:

  • Describe the profile and characteristics of an “inclusive educator”
  • Respond to the power dynamics, needs and preferences of diverse groups of learners 
  • Outline inclusive strategies and best practices to foster tolerance and inclusivity in classroom

At the end of this module you will know how to…

    • Explain what inclusive education is and why it matters
    • List the characteristics of inclusive (VET) educators
    • Identify different learning styles and needs of diverse learners
    • Interpret power dynamics in the classroom -among teacher & students and students among themselves
    • Develop effective strategies for creating strong relationships with students 
    • Prepare/draft a “training/educational contract”, setting basic e-classroom rules and fostering -among others- inclusion and diversity in the e-class
    • Self-reflect on the role of educator in building and maintaining an inclusive learning environment   
    • Critically reflect on the possibility of students moving, between tolerance to relativism and how to deal with it in the classroom
    • Work together with students and support them towards the creation of a tolerant, inclusive e-class



This modules demonstrates the benefits of three different units:

1.Understanding inclusive education
2. Profile of inclusive educators
3. Addressing students’ learning styles and needs

Unit 4.1: Understanding inclusive education

Building an orchestra

    • Close your eyes for a moment and imagine that you are no longer an educator/VET professional but a conductor/music director who builds an orchestra.
    • What instruments would you like to include in your orchestra?
    • Time to think: 1 minute

Unit 4.1: Understanding inclusive education

  • Bowed string instruments, such as the violin, viola or cello,
  • Woodwinds, such as the flute, oboe, clarinet or saxophone,
  • Brass instruments, such as the horn, trumpet, trombone, cornet or tuba,
  • Percussion instruments, such as the timpani, bass drum, cymbals, triangle or tambourine!

Or maybe you have chosen other instruments such as the piano or even a giant  harp! You might have also decided to include electronic instruments and guitars for performing some modern compositions! 

Is there anyone who imagined an orchestra consisting solely by one musical instrument? For example, an orchestra composed exclusively by 50 or more cellos or violins? How does this sound to you? The result could still be impressive, however there would be a variety of amazing things that this homogenous group simply wouldn’t be able to perform! There would be so much music that they’d be unable to play!

Unit 4.1: Understanding inclusive education

Are you seeing the analogy with diversity and inclusion in your class? Yes, you are an educator but also a music conductor who recognizes the importance and unique involvement of every student who will contribute as a sole musical instrument to the final orchestral result!

Your classroom, whether in-person, online or hybrid, is your orchestra! ….Would you ever ask a violin to sound like a piano?! Or a guitar to play like a trumpet?!

Self reflect or discuss with others some lessons we can learn from an orchestra (Robertson, 2019) when it comes to achieving a diverse and inclusive classroom.

So, what is inclusive (VET) education?

Inclusive education is the first principle of the European Pillar of social rights which underlines that: “Everyone has the right to quality and inclusive education, training and life-long learning in order to maintain and acquire skills that enable them to participate fully in society and manage successfully transitions in the labour market” (European Commission, European Education Area).

Inclusive education means real learning opportunities for groups who have traditionally been excluded. Inclusive educational systems value the unique contributions that students of all backgrounds bring to the classroom and allow diverse groups to learn and grow side by side, to the benefit of all (UNICEF)

The main relation of VET and inclusion can be mostly seen as VET being a vehicle for social inclusion – via enabling people to successfully enter the labour market.

Unit 4.1: Understanding inclusive education

What inclusive education IS and what IS NOT

Let’s explore in more detail what inclusive education IS and what IS NOT, based on the  EENET/Enabling Education Network, UK. Keep in mind, as also stated in the source, that there is no universally agreed understanding of inclusive education, therefore the following summary is open to additions and adjustments.

Do you want to try and give your own definition of inclusive VET education, based on our knowledge, experience and perceptions? [Self- reflection or discussion]

Do some further research on your own, self-reflect and/or discuss it with other people and give your own definition of inclusive (VET) education.


  • Colleagues or students is a great idea to also be involved in the discussion.
  • Make sure to come back to this question after you have completed Module 4 and again after you have completed the full DESTINE course!

Why do diversity and inclusive education matter?

Diversity is present in every classroom. If you ignore it and you are not working towards inclusive education, you’re not doing your job as you should…! Consider the following three reasons provided by the Prodigy Education website about the importance of diversity in the classroom.

  • A) Diversity in the classroom builds critical thinkers
  • B) Diversity in the classroom improves academic outcomes
  • C) Diversity in the classroom helps students feel represented and included 

Next, look at the following explanations (1,2,3) offered by the same source and try to match each one to the correct reason (A, B, C).

Next, look at the following explanations (1,2,3) offered by the same source and try to match each one to the correct reason (A, B, C).

Unit 4.2: Profile of inclusive educators

In the context of the DESTINE project, the term VET educator refers both to VET teachers and trainers, while sometimes the two terms might be used interchangeable. 

However, it is useful to know what the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP, 2022) mentions:

  • VET teachers receive their qualification after completing their higher education studies. When their core studies do not include a pedagogical component, they can obtain a pedagogical certificate to complement it and be employed as VET teachers. 
  • VET trainers come from a diverse background as they access the training professions from different qualifications, while it is common to enter the profession after working for many years in industry.

Think for a moment your current or previous classes. Could your group be considered diverse because of one or more of the following?

  • Age
  • Disability
  • Sex
  • Gender reassignment
  • Sexual orientation
  • Marriage and civil partnership
  • Pregnancy and maternity
  • Race
  • Ethnicity
  • Language
  • Religion or belief (including lack of belief)
  • Other statuses or characteristics 

Think also if you had students who had different levels of motivation, attitudes, academic or working experience or different responses to specific classroom environments and instructional practices.

In a diverse but yet inclusive classroom, whether physical or virtual, effective teaching means the work of effective educators. But who is actually the effective inclusive teacher/trainer? 

Effective inclusive educators focus not only in things such as lesson clarity, instructional variety, engagement in the learning process and student success rate, but also –and this is a critical point– in the inclusion of students from various backgrounds, with mixed needs and mixed abilities

Remember the orchestra analogy in unit 4.1: Effective inclusive educators are talented and hardworking music conductors who achieve to build an orchestra composed by motivated musicians playing various instruments, creating all together great pieces of music!

Inclusive educators:

  • Have an inclusive attitude and use (or to be more precise, they are in constant search of) teaching methods, tools and resources that enable all students, whatever their background or circumstances, to enjoy and benefit from the best learning experience possible. 
  • Value their students’ unique talents and contributions and try to make learning more varied and rich for everyone.
  • Acknowledge that a more critical understanding of any subject is possible when a wider variety of perspectives and experiences are present in the classroom.

Fill in the Blanks


The European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education has identified in the context of the “Teacher Education for Inclusion (TE4I project) four core values relating to teaching and learning as the basis for the work of all teachers in inclusive education. To learn more about these values, match correctly the following columns [matching exercise].

In this section we summarize these core values along with the associated areas of teacher competence, that are made up of three elements: attitudes, knowledge and skills. A certain attitude or belief demands certain knowledge or level of understanding and then skills in order to implement this knowledge in a practical situation. 

For a detailed presentation/analysis you are advised to check the relevant source: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education (2012). Teacher Education for Inclusion (TE4I project): Profile of Inclusive Teachers.

Unit 4.2: Profile of inclusive educators

In addition, the inclusive (VET) educator:

  • is highly patient, welcoming, kind, motivated and devoted
  • is empathetic and good listener
  • has the ability to solve problems
  • knows about the interests, aptitude and abilities of the students and use them to develop various skills in them
  • has the ability to set high targets for all students, provide them with success experiences and motivate them
  • has digital skills –especially in the (post)COVID era, and also the knowledge of special instructional material/resources/tools and how to use them, depending the case
  • works as team with students and other education professionals, depending the case.
  • is flexible and tries to think “outside the box”

For a teacher who teaches in an inclusive way, inclusion is not “just tolerance”, but unquestioned acceptance. And this is exactly a key-point that inclusive educators should try to instill to their classroom. 

When we are children, we are usually taught that, if something is wrong, we ought to avoid that thing, or take action to stop it (e.g. Plastic in the oceans? Use less plastic! And join the campaign against plastic!). The idea that sometimes we should not only stand back and allow some behaviour, but should also behave in a welcoming manner towards the person responsible for that behaviour, is hard to understand. 

After all, if you believe something is morally wrong, why wouldn’t you intervene to stop it?! As Easton (2021) points out: “The usual justifications that crop up to answer this question – pragmatic justifications about social cohesion, epistemological justifications based on the difficulty of answering certain types of questions, or (most powerful, in my view) moral justifications based on the need to respect people’s autonomously arrived-at decisions – need to be carefully explained and discussed if we are to avoid children moving, forgivably, from tolerance to relativism (the view that there is no right or wrong when it comes to moral questions)”.

In an inclusive learning environment the tolerant person is a non-judgmental person, disinclined to disapprove of ways of life that differ from their own, and even appreciating their value and worth. This is an understanding of tolerance as more of a positive, “open-minded” attitude. Quoting Easton (2021) “Whereas tolerance as forbearance implies that a racist who refrains from acting on their racist beliefs is being tolerant, tolerance as non-disapproval implies that the tolerant person wouldn’t hold racist beliefs in the first place”.

Think of yourself and your role as an educator:

*Do you respect the diversity of your class? 

*Do you enable all students to take part in learning and fulfil their potential? 

*Do you ensure that different students’ learning needs and preferences are met, regardless of their backgrounds, learning styles or abilities? 

*Do you remove any barriers that prevent students from learning?

Unit 4.3: Addressing students’ learning styles and needs

Does everyone learn the same way?

No, everyone learns differently! We all have different ways of experiencing the world, and as a result, different learning styles exist. Understanding these various learning styles can have a significant impact on how educators interact with their students, organize group projects, and modify individual learning. 

Generally speaking, these are the most common types of learners (Malvik, 2020).

  1. Visual learners
  2. Auditory learners
  3. Kinesthetic learners
  4. Reading/writing learners

Learning styles and preferences can take many forms, and not everyone fits neatly into one and only category.

Are you wondering how to recognize various learning styles and needs? Let’s find out “who is who” by matching the two columns.

To get ideas on what methods to use so as to cater various learning styles and needs, read carefully and match the following columns [matching exercise]

Thinking about different learning styles and needs in physical and virtual classes [Self- reflection or discussion]

Self-reflect and/or discuss with other people about which type of learners is the most difficult for educators to cover their needs in an online class. Any ideas about how this can be achieved?


  • Colleagues or students is a great idea to also be involved in the discussion
  • Make sure to come back to this question after you have completed Module 4 and again after you have completed the full DESTINE course!

Digital inclusive teaching and learning nowadays

Digital inclusive teaching and learning nowadays

Since both teaching and learning have undergone significant change the last 20 years and especially during the COVID-era, it is highly likely that VET educators who finished their education ten or more years ago will find themselves in a different learning environment than they did when they were students themselves. Adult education has become lifelong learning; students are more often mentioned as learners, teachers are facilitators of learning; schools are now learning environments; while learning outcomes are carefully monitored (Smith 1999/2020). 

Your perceptions of the learning process have impact on your teaching style and methods!                                                              Contrary to what one might think, we do not all share the same conception of the learning process. Among those who have studied the issue, is the Swedish educational psychologist and researcher Roger Säljö (1979), who conducted a survey among people with very different learning experiences and defined five different conceptions of the learning process.

Conceptions of the learning process

Match the two columns with the conceptions of the learning process (Säljö, 1979) and their short explanation.

In the following years, various others studies explored the conceptions of learning in different audiences identifying even more conceptions of learning, e.g. learning as personal fulfillment, as changing as a person, as a duty, as a process not bound by time or context or as developing social competence (Purdie & Hattie, 2002).

Time for self-reflection!

What does “learning” mean to you? And what does it mean to learn and teach in the digital era? What conception of learning process applies to you the most and how do you believe that this affects your teaching methods?

Fill the blanks with the correct given words to figure out what “learner-centred Pedagogy” is, focusing on VET, according to Bremner, Sakata & Cameron (2022) and Cedefop (2015). [Gap filling exercise]

Possible aspects of Learner-Centred Pedagogy

The following eight (8) dimensions have been proved to be sufficiently comprehensive to do justice to the wide variety of teaching and learning activity commonly undertaken in Initial Vocational Education and Training (IVET), while also sufficiently distinctive to signal the complexity and heterogeneity of the separate processes.

In addition, Cedefop’s learner survey (2015) revealed the characteristics of teaching or learning that were significantly associated with higher levels of attentiveness or motivation. These characteristics have been grouped together according to which of the eight pedagogical dimensions of the theoretical model they correspond to.

Dimensions of learner-centred vocational pedagogy

Source: Cedefop, 2015, adapted from de Bruijn and Leeman, 2011

Characteristics of vocational pedagogy significantly associated with higher levels of motivation or attentiveness, grouped by pedagogical dimension

Source: Cedefop, 2015, learner survey


Being an inclusive educator in a “digital literacies”, (post)pandemic environment means to be a lifelong learner!

Unit 4.3: Addressing students’ various learning styles and needs

In the (post)COVID age of digital literacies, VET educators are no longer “experts,” but rather co-creators of knowledge with their students, mentors and coaches. As a result, classroom activities are fundamentally different, theory is infused in practice, and the goal is to produce “new activities on new media” and re-establish the teacher-student relationship, also helping students to create stronger bonds with their co-students and gain a more inclusive view of the world. 

The availability of Open Educational Resources (OER) can “change the nature of the teaching activity itself, with self-directed learners able to take more control over their learning” (European Commission, 2012, p. 22). However, since not all students know how to use the whole range of new technologies or don’t have good navigation skills, the key for educators is to help them how to identify, search, evaluate, analyse and use in an effective way the huge amount of data and information that surrounds us in the digital era. 

Being an inclusive educator in a “digital literacies”, (post)pandemic environment means to be a lifelong learner!



All different, all the same

This activity will help educators challenge stereotypes, including their own, and reflect on their role as teachers/trainers in building and maintaining an inclusive learning environment. It can be conducted either as self-directed or guided learning activity under the guidance of a trainers’ trainer.

Self-reflect to think of a situation where you had a stereotype assumption about a student that proved to be inaccurate. If you are a trainers’ trainer ask participants to self-reflect and then ask from volunteers to share their incidents/thoughts.

Watch the “All that we share” video created by the Danish Channel TV2

Answer the questions (If you are a trainers’ trainer ask participants to self-reflect and then ask from volunteers to share their incidents/thoughts):

  • How does this video make you feel?
  • How often do we put people in boxes?
  • What is the video message?
  • What makes us unique?
  • In what ways are we different but still same?

Answer the questions (If you are a trainers’ trainer ask participants to self-reflect and then ask from volunteers to share their incidents/thoughts):

  • How does this video make you feel?
  • What is the video message?
  • How often have you used the expression “like a girl” or “like a woman” in a negative way?
  • How often do you hear other people/your students using these expressions in a negative way 
  • What can we do to change the situation?

Self-reflect (or discuss with the group) on the role of educator in building and maintaining an inclusive learning environment, based on what you have learned in Module 4 and in general in the DESTINE course, so far. 


From Power to Empowerment in the classroom

This activity explores dynamics in the classroom, helping teachers and trainers to improve the ways they exercise their power in various ways. It can be conducted either as self-directed or guided learning under the guidance of a trainers’ trainer.

Introduction to the activity

  • Power dynamics, as forces or processes that produce change inside a group or system, play a critical role in classroom social relationships and can influence the experience for both students and teachers. 
  • As in all social environments, classroom relationships are series of smaller or bigger power-loaded exchanges.

Read the five scenarios that follow and in each case imagine and describe the climate in the classroom.

Complete the matching exercise to find out to which type of power each scenario refers to.

Self-reflect or discuss about the types of power that you practice in your classroom

Think or even write a short paragraph about how these various types of power can be combined so as to achieve the best possible results in the classroom and empower students.

Read the “Conclusion – ‘food for thought’ section” or –if you are a trainers’ trainer, conduct a dialogue to wrap up the activity. 

(Optional) You can read the relevant sources (Teaching Times, 2021; Flaherty, 2018; Thomas, 2014)


Classroom scenarios

Scenario 1

Teacher tells students what to do such as assigning homework and generally students accepts this assignment through –more or less– respect for the status of the teachers’ position. Students believe that the teacher has the right to prescribe behavior given the status of their position.

Scenario 2

The teacher practices continuous and exhaustive monitoring and emphasizes compliance rather than cooperation. Students believe that their teacher possesses the ability to punish or refrain from punishing. Students might rebel, lie, cheat or even withdraw from learning.

Scenario 3

The teacher introduces stimulants that students perceive to be pleasant such as recognition and privileges as well as removing stimulants that students perceive to be unpleasant. Students believe that the teacher possesses the ability to distribute or withhold rewards not obtainable elsewhere.

Scenario 4

The teacher is fair and concerned about students. Not only does he/she has the expertise but also shows warmth and care. The teacher provides beneficial feedback, talks with students about matters outside of VET school, and has high expectations for all. Students desire to be liked by their teacher and those who feel in a less powerful position, bid to emulate the personal characteristics of their teacher.

Scenario 5

Teacher brings knowledge and experience into the classroom. He/she not only knows their teaching subject but can also express it in a way that is confident and clear to the students, bringing  positive energy into the learning environment through the joy of teaching. Teacher is a leader and a mentor and students acknowledge his/her authority and believe that their teacher’s expertise is important for achieving the tasks they are presented with.

Matching Excercise

Conclusion – “food for thought”

  1. Power dynamics are unavoidable and at the same time necessary, however it is critical to strike a balance with accountability in order to avoid learners feeling powerless to speak up in circumstances where it is needed, which could have an impact on future work connections. 
  2. However, teaching is not all about the power held by the teacher, but also about the empowerment of students to search for knowledge, make decisions, interact with others and build productive relationships; it is about the shaping of an effective and joyful learning environment that enables individuals to become a better version of themselves and influence others in positive ways. 
  3. At the root of empowerment is power and this power works to shape the experiences of every individual within the VET school institution. While teachers may not have the ability to control some aspects of how power is operationalized within the institution, teachers can choose how they interpret and exercise power in the classroom.
  4. There are numerous ways in which both students and teachers try to obtain or maintain power in the classroom, e.g. teachers use certain kinds of speech to gain power and get learners to comply with their requests, while students might resist and try to assume the teacher’s role, e.g. by using certain kinds of talk, stories that include or exclude, gross talk, strategic questioning or even silence to manipulate the outcome of classroom events.

As Thomas (2014) puts it in a nutshell:

  • Referent power may be the most important of the five types of power. Developing positive relationships with students who believe the teacher cares about them is crucial. Lack of expert power is much more acceptable, while coercive power may not even be required if students believe they are loved. It would, however, be unfair to the students if a teacher did not have expertise in their field. Positive feedback rewards can aid in the establishment of referent power. 
  • As a result, the model below provides a step-by-step process for applying these various forms of power and is one of many options for teachers looking to establish power in the classroom, empowering students at the same time: 
    • a) Use legitimate power to begin, 
    • b) Establish expert power through teaching, 
    • c) Develop referent power through developing strong relationships, 
    • d) Use reward power to enhance referent power and to avoid using coercive power, 
    • e) Use coercive power when necessary but reestablish referent power afterwards.


A welcoming and safe classroom for all

This is a long-term activity that aims to guide educators on how to apply inclusive teaching strategies and build strong relationships with their students.

  1. Inclusive teaching starts by asking yourself, as a teacher/trainer (or discussing with other colleagues), a number of questions: 
  • Why do some types of students seem to participate more frequently and learn more easily than others? 
  • How might cultural assumptions influence interaction with students? 
  • How might student identities, ideologies, and backgrounds influence their level of engagement? 
  • Finally, how might course and teaching redesign encourage full participation and provide accessibility to all types of students?

Self-reflect and then ask from volunteers to share their incidents/thoughts.

2. Read the following and then think and make a list of practical tips that fall under the two proposed strategies and can facilitate educators to create a welcoming classroom for all:

Yale University – Poorvu Center for Teaching and Learning (2017) separates inclusive teaching strategies into two categories:

  • Creating an inclusive classroom climate, where all students feel welcome and safe and are motivated to participate, by establishing ground rules for discussing controversial issues, learning about students’ backgrounds and adjusting tactics accordingly, developing (and assisting students in building) greater racial and socioeconomic awareness.
  • Incorporating diverse perspectives in course material through broadening reading lists to include writers who are not white men, including different ethnic and racial perspectives in case studies, using inclusive language, making sure PowerPoints and lecture examples include a diversity of real-world examples, and
    avoiding tokenizing certain people, students, or representations.

3. Explore the variety of examples and strategies presented in the “Useful Tips” section of this module for
mastering inclusive teaching pedagogy.

4. Evaluate the methods and tools that you use in your classes.

5. What are you planning to do from now on, so as to build a better inclusive strategy for a safe and welcoming
class for all?


Useful Tips!

Based on Wyatt-Ross (2018) and Yale University – Poorvu Center for Teaching and Learning (2017), we have adapted and propose (in random order) various relationship-building approaches that can help educators -both in physical and online classes- to build a welcoming and safe classroom for all:

  • Learn your students’ names and learn to pronounce them correctly. Our names are important part of ouridentities. When teachers and other people associated with the school take the time to learn students’ names, they make them feel valued and appreciated. Remember that intentionally mispronouncing someone’s name is a passive aggressive form of disrespect.
  • Set aside time for relationship housekeeping. Set aside a short time for students to ask questions, share brief short stories of their lives, and just check in and transition into the new lessons. Remember that all of us desire a connection with those who we trust.
  • Have one-on-one conversations, discussions, and informal meetings/online calls with students. These discussions should take place early in the year and on a regular basis throughout the year. Don’t wait until there’s a issue or the student is in difficulty to approach him or her.
  • Know your subject and show that you love it. Students appreciate and want teachers/trainers who knows their subject and love their job. This doesn’t mean that they have all the answers, but that they are willing to search and motivate students to search with them. Teachers must be able to demonstrate material understanding by anticipating student misconceptions and explaining the content in a number of ways.
  • Provide support. Instructors can structure their courses to support students in and out of the classroom, through open or flexible office hours, additional learning and grading opportunities, formative assessments, and reliable email habits. Such support demonstrates the instructor’s dedication to the academic success of all of their students.
  • Incorporate diversity into the curriculum. It is important –depending on the subject that you teach- to represent diverse types of peoples and perspectives through course content and materials, including readings, lecture examples, images in PowerPoint presentations, and case studies. This allows all students to visualize themselves in a variety of learning contexts. Use sensitive, inclusive language, teach with inclusive material, and connect with your students.
  • Examine your implicit biases and consider your own attitudes towards students. This process can involve actively monitoring interactions with different types of students, implementing policies like name-blind grading to minimize the impact of bias, and maintaining high expectations for all students. Make sure that you maintain awareness of classroomdiversity.
  • Use international days as an opportunity for fruitful discussion. Check the UN calendar or other related sources and ask from your students to search for related material and make short presentations and/or discuss all togethers for critical issues on the occasion of international days such as International Day for Tolerance, International Day of Persons with Disabilities, Human Rights Day, International Day of Women and Girls in Science, Women’s Day, International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, World AIDS Day, International Day of Commemoration and Dignity of the Victims of the Crime of Genocide and of the Prevention of this Crime, Global Pride Day and so many more! The knowledge of multicultural holidays and celebrations can also provide an excellent opportunity for diversity awareness. Create an extensive and interactive diversity calendar!
  • See yourself as the students see you. What type of facial expressions do students see? What does your voice tone and body language tell them about how comfortable you feel around them? What language do you use to show your students that you respect them as individuals? What biases and perceptions do the students have of you based on how you look, dress, and talk? Let your students get to know you. Things that you believe that don’t matter e.g. what is your
    favorite color or your favorite TV show, actually matter, because they make students feel closer to you.


“I teach in an inclusive way, what is your superpower?!”

Diversity, inclusion and the sense of belonging is a vital part of students’ experience.

It is YOU, who as a VET teacher/trainer are the key-element in the creation of an inclusive classroom, whether physical, online or hybrid!

Realize the “super power” that you have to create a classroom where all students feel welcome and safe to be themselves and take action! 

You are not alone in this effort! There are strategies, methods, tips and people who can help you! Attending the DESTINE course proves that you are on the right path!



▸Bremner, N. (2021). The multiple meanings of ‘student-centred’ or ‘learner-centred’ education, and the case for a more flexible approach to defining it, Comparative Education, 57:2, 159-186, DOI: 10.1080/03050068.2020.1805863

▸Bremner, N., N. Sakata & L. Cameron (2022) The outcomes of learner-centred pedagogy: A systematic review. International
Journal of Educational Development, Vol. 94, 2022, 102649.

▸Bruijn, E. de; Leeman, Y. (2011). Authentic and self-directed learning in vocational education: challenges to vocational educators.
Teaching and teacher education, Vol. 27, Issue 4, pp. 694-702.

▸Cedefop (2015). Vocational pedagogies and benefits for learners: practices and challenges in Europe. Luxembourg: Publications
Office of the European Union. Cedefop research paper; No 47. &

▸Cedefop (n.d.). Inclusive environment.

▸CEDEFOP/European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (2022). intervention approach on “Professional
development for inclusive teaching and training”.

▸Easton, C. (2021). Teaching tolerance in schools cannot avoid controversy. Support Psyche

▸EENET/Enabling Education Network, UK (n.d). Inclusive education.

▸European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education (2012). Teacher Education for Inclusion (TE4I project): Profile of Inclusive
Teachers. Odense, Denmark: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. (EN). Available in multiple languages in

▸European Commission (2012). Rethinking education, investing in skills for better socioeconomic outcome: communication from the
Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.
COM(2012) 669 final.

▸European Commission, European Education Area (n.d.). Inclusive education.

▸Flaherty, A. (2018). Power and Empowerment in Schools. Contemporary Pedagogies in Teacher Education and Development. doi:

▸Malvik, C. (2020). 4 Types of Learning Styles: How to Accommodate a Diverse Group of Students. Rasmussen University.

▸Purdie, N., J., Hattie (2002) “Assessing Students’ Conceptions of Learning”, Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental
Psychology. Vol 2, p.p. 17-32.

▸Robertson, A. (2019, 6 July). Building an Orchestra: Lessons on Diversity and Inclusion. LinkedIn

▸Säljö, R (1979) “Learning about learning”, High Educ Vol(8), p.p. 443–451. Available at

▸Smith, M. K. (1999-2020) “Learning theory”, The encyclopedia of pedagogy and informal education. Available at

▸Teaching Times (2021). How power dynamics influence learning.

▸Thomas, D. (2014). Power in the Classroom. LinkedIn.

▸Unesco (n.d.). Interview with the UNESCO-IBE Director, Clementina Acedo.

▸UNICEF, (n.d.). Inclusive education.

▸University College London/UCL (2019). Inclusive teaching. Teaching Toolkits.

▸Wyatt-Ross, J. (2018). A Classroom Where Everyone Feels Welcome. Edutopia.

▸Yale University – Poorvu Center for Teaching and Learning (2017). Inclusive Teaching Strategies.

Further Reading

▸Cedefop (2022, 26 May), “Making VET inclusive for Ukrainian refugee students” (blog article with links to useful resources).

▸Cedefop (n.d.), “Digital inclusion – Intervention Approach” (advice to policy makers and VET practitioners).

▸Cedefop (n.d.), “Professional development for inclusive teaching and training – Intervention Approach” (advice to policy makers and VET practitioners).

▸Cedefop (n.d.), “Psychosocial support – Intervention Approach”.

▸Cedefop (n.d.), “Tailored learning pathways – Intervention Approach” (Advice to policy-makers and practitioners).

▸Cedefop (n.d.), Reflection Tool for VET providers & Evaluation plan for learning providers. &

▸EPALE- Electronic Platform for Adult Learning in Europe.

▸European Commission/Directorate-General for Education, Youth, Sport and Culture, ECORYS & EIESP (2021). Enhancing learning through digital tools and practices. How digital technology in compulsory education can help promote inclusion: final.

▸Gay & Lesbian Equality Network (2016). ‘BEING LGBT IN SCHOOL’ A Resource for Post-Primary Schools to Prevent Homophobic and Transphobic Bullying and Support LGBT Students.

▸NERCHE/New England Resource Center for Higher Education: Self-Assessment Rubric for the Institutionalisation of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Higher Education. College of Education and Human Development, University of Massachusetts Boston

▸Pickering. J. (2015). “How to start using technology in your teaching”. Higher Education Academy.

▸UK Government – Department of Education (2017). Preventing and tackling bullying Advice for headteachers, staff and governing bodies.

▸UNESCO (2020). Policy paper 43: inclusive teaching: preparing all teachers to teach all students (available in English, Français, Español, العربية).

▸UNHCR (2021), “UNHCR Teaching About Refugees 2021 – Words matter Summary Table”.

▸Xu, W. (2011). Learning Styles and Their Implications in Learning and Teaching. Theory and Practice in Language Studies. Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 413-416, April 2011.

Well done! Now it’s “quiz time”! Then you can try the next module!

The European Commission’s support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

project number : 2021-1-FR01-KA220-VET-000032921